L'Humanité in English
Translation of selective papers from the french daily newspaper l'Humanité
decorHome > Blogs > China, BRICS and CELAC: Symbol of a New Type of International Relations in (...)
 

EditorialWorldPoliticsEconomySocietyCultureScience & TechnologySportInternational Communist and Labor Press"Tribune libre"Comment and OpinionBlogsLinks
About China, read also
decorXi pledges ’new era’ in building moderately prosperous society decorUN action along with talks is the way to solve DPRK issue decorSouth Korea elects left-wing president who... decorRemembering the Reformer decorDavos XI Jinping warns Trump not to launch a... decorAbout John Pilger’s film THE COMING WAR ON CHINA decor14-year-old girls in its factories: Samsung in the dock decorHappy New Year 2016 decorFirst World Cultural Forum decorA Wonderful First World Congress on Marxism in China decorThe Great Wall is a Guidebook decorGreat Green Wall versus Yellow Dragon
About BRICS, read also
decorThe BRICS feel sympathy for Greece, says Jeremy Cronin
Blogs

by Peggy Raphaëlle Cantave Fuyet, PhD candidate, School of Marxism, Renmin University of China, Beijing, China.

China, BRICS and CELAC: Symbol of a New Type of International Relations in the 21st Century

7th World Socialism Forum, 2016, Beijing, China

Translated Thursday 1 December 2016, by Peggy Cantave Fuyet

Abstract:

Today, under the leadership of Chinese President Xi Jinping, China pushes forward the idea of a new type of international relations based on bilateral or multilateral win-win cooperation and peaceful development. The idea and practice of a new type of international relations is a great challenge to US hegemony and to the “old international relations order”. To understand the new type of international relations put forward by China, one must consider China in its historical, cultural socio-economic and political conditions closely linked to today’s international context. It explains why China refuses to impose its ideology, currency, language, military forces, and refrains from interfering in foreign countries internal affairs, as do the Western great powers. For China, mutual development is a fundamental key to world peace. China pursues peaceful development by linking its own national economic development and interests to the World economic development and interests, in particular to those of developing countries and emerging economies. The active role of China in and with different structures, mechanisms, institutions such as the BRICS and CELAC gives the developing countries and emerging economies a louder voice in the international affairs (“global governance”). This may write a new page in the history of international relations and global governance of the 21st century.

Keywords: BRICS; CELAC; China; New type of international relations; Win-win cooperation

Introduction

In the recent decades, China stressed its will to pursue the road of peaceful development, which is an important component of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. This statement was strongly reaffirmed at the 18th CPC National Congress. Today, under the leadership of Chinese President Xi Jinping, China pushes forward the idea of a new type of international relations based on win-win cooperation. However, China’s rise is considered by some countries as a threat. The idea and practice of a new type of international relations is a great challenge to US hegemony and to the “old international relations order”. China is actively contributing to put in place, with the help of other countries such as the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), financial structures and other kinds of multilateral organizations, based on equality, justice and mutual benefit.

Yet, some voices, coming especially from the West, but sometimes also from Asia and Africa, claim that China will seek hegemony. They doubt that a powerful country can follow a path other than the old international relations path based on inequality, injustice and win-lose relation. They think that as a powerful country, China will certainly try to replace the United States and seek hegemony. Those who consider that China will follow the US imperialist path fail to understand the fundamental differences in many aspects (historical past, socio-economic system and political system, goals, etc.) between the two countries and therefore, fail to understand the new type of international relations China is pursuing in theory and practice.

During a dialogue between the BRICS countries and several leaders and presidents from Latin America that was held after the July 2014 BRICS summit in Brazil, the Chinese President Xi Jinping said that the “BRICS and South American countries, as emerging states and developing countries, constitute ‘the rising power’ in the international structure” [1]. Through the particular examples of China’s relations with the BRICS and with the CELAC (Community of Latin American and Caribbean States), this article will analyze the new type of international relations gradually put in place by China, and its anti-imperialist utility in today’s world.

China and the BRICS: Cooperation between China and other Emergent Economies

The Hostility and Skepticism of the Western Great Powers toward the BRICS

The BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) are five major emerging economies. They represent 43% of the world population, 30% of the world GDP and 17% share in the world trade [2]. Since the first summit of the BRIC (South Africa entered in 2011) held in Russia in 2009, to the 8th summit of the BRICS held in India in October 2016, the members discussed many issues. For instance, the Brics countries discussed the global economic crisis, the reform of the United Nations, the reform of the global financial order and financial institutions (International Monetary Fund and World Bank) and the importance for the BRICS to have the influence and place they deserve inside the international financial institutions. Furthermore they discussed the consolidation and long-term cooperation between the BRICS, the establishment of the BRICS’ New Development Bank (NDB), the BRICS Contingent Reserve Arrangement, sustainable development and green economy, co-funding of infrastructures in Africa, among other important issues.

Since the establishment of the BRICS, the so-called West showed hostility. Today, the BRICS are affected by internal and external political and/or economic factors of destabilization which strengthen the attitude of Western superiority and leads to more skepticism from the West. Yet, in reality, the hostility and skepticism of the West shows a fear of the political and economic potential of the BRICS by the developed countries, and in particular by the great powers. As stressed by Ruan Zongze, vice-president of the China Institute of International Studies, “Since the recovery of the global economy after the 2008 financial crisis, the BRICS countries have contributed more than 50 percent of global economic growth” [3]. He also explains that even though the BRICS are facing a hard time politically and/or economically, their economic growth is far better than in developed countries. Indeed, as underlined by John Ross, Senior Fellow at Chongyang Institute for Financial Studies (Renmin University of China), in 2015 China’s per capita GDP growth was 6.4 percent and India’s 6.3 percent based on World Bank data [4]. In 2016, China is expected to achieve 6.7% economic growth and India is expected to exceed 7% of economic growth [5].

Looking to the BRICS by focusing only on the slowdown of their growth rate, on their internal political problems, on the fact that they have different economic and political systems, have different views on some foreign policy issues, and so on, can not give the real picture of the BRICS’ global utility, and present and future potential. Having divergence or differences between the BRICS countries in many aspects does not mean having antagonistic differences or divergences. As long as the contradictions are not antagonistic, they are not necessarily harmful to the harmony of the group. They can even be fruitful. The important question for the BRICS is not about being or not being different and in what aspects. Instead, it is to discuss how to better coordinate and work together for a multi-polar world based on peace and development, equality, inclusiveness, among other principles. It is also to promote an international order in which emerging economies and developing countries can express their specific problems and needs and be seriously taken into consideration. As long as they share some common goals, common principles and common strategies, the BRICS should be able to survive. Their survival is in itself a threat to the declining US-led “Western model”.

The BRICS and the Establishment of a New Multilateral Financial Institution

Considering the importance of strong economic ties between the BRICS countries, the need for financial resources to construct infrastructures and promote sustainable development in the BRICS countries and in other emerging economies and developing countries, the BRICS created in 2014 their own financial institution called the New Development Bank (NDB). The NDB is the first global financial institution led by developing countries. The president of the NDB is Indian, the headquarters of the NDB is based in China (Shanghai) and the first regional center of NDB is in South Africa (Johannesburg).

The declaration of the project of establishing a BRICS New Development Bank and its actual establishment received a lot of attention from the West and Japan, countries which began again to show skepticism and hostility, and began to put pressure to avoid the establishment of such a Bank. In fact, the BRICS’ Development Bank gives the developing countries and the emerging economies an alternative to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and to the World Bank (WB). Indeed, the IMF and WB are used as tools for the US domination of the World economy ever since World War II. Both impose measures, such as usurious loans or privatization of public goods, that are often bad for the development of the emerging economies and the developing countries.

The BRICS NDB’s objective is to fund long-term infrastructure projects in developing countries and promote sustainable development. The NDB also envisages to build a knowledge-sharing platform among the developing countries [6]. Furthermore, the NDB encourages lending in local currencies, which will help to gradually move away from the US dollar dominance. Moreover, a Contingent Reserve Arrangement (a crisis lending fund) of 100 billion dollars was established to better protect the BRICS countries in case of a international financial crisis. The BRICS will seek funds from the financial institutions such as the NBD or the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) which are independent from the IMF and WB. In other words, the influence of the dollar will be in danger. Another interesting and new element is that the BRICS started to discuss the establishment of a commercial arbitration mechanism and a rating agency independent from the West, and try to avoid, when possible, external destabilization. For the moment, all these new financial institutions don’t replace the existing ones (IMF, WB, etc.). However, they give more liberty to emerging economies and developing countries to choose within the best conditions that are offered to them and to improve the global economic governance architecture.

BRICS countries are leaders among emerging economies and developing countries. They are also all members of the G20. These past years they pushed more and more forward the idea a reform of the world economic order, a global governance, a multi-polar world and peaceful world. The BRICS stressed the lack of representation of the emerging economies and developing countries in the international affairs (“global governance”). They build a new type of international relations based on common development and prosperity, mutual benefits, equality, justice, stability and world peace, among other principles. The BRICS New Development Bank (NDB) and the Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA) are part of this “work in progress” to achieve those common goals.

The fact that these past few years the BRICS faced slow economic growth brought difficulties, but also new opportunities. We can perceive the construction of stronger ties between China, the BRICS and other multilateral institutions. For instance, in October 2016, during the BRICS summit, there was a second summit that was less publicized; the BRICS-BIMSTEC summit. The BIMSTEC is the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation. This regional organization includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand, which are countries in the littoral and adjacent geographical areas of the Bay of Bengal. The BRICS and the BIMSTEC have a cooperation potential and both organizations want to establish cooperation in areas such as connectivity, trade and investment, maritime economy and people-to-people exchanges. They share the desire to promote world peace, common prosperity and common development.

During the BRICS-BIMSTEC summit, the Chinese President Xi Jinping “called for the alignment of the Belt and Road Initiative and the BIMSTEC programs, so as to advance infrastructure construction and connectivity, and strive for common development” [7]. The BRICS (43% of the world population) and BIMSTEC (22% of the world population) would be interconnected to the One Belt One Road initiative (more or less 60 countries) which could be interconnected with the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan). In other words, a new world order is taking place, based on a multi-polar governance and cooperation between countries and regions. It links together Asia, Europe and Africa.

By their existence, as they develop, create or actively participate in the creation of banks independent from the US (NDB and AIIB), establish new cooperation with other countries or other cooperation mechanism, the BRICS (with the leading role of China in particular) are a threat to US-led imperialism. The possibility for the BRICS, the CELAC, the One Belt One Road initiative (Silk Road Economic Belt and a 21st Century Maritime Silk Road), the SCO, the BIMSTEC, the NDB and the AIIB to be inter-connected based on a new type of international relations (more inclusive, equal, peaceful, respectful, etc.) is a real threat to imperialism. Indeed, the latter survives by doing the contrary. The inter-connection of those countries, structures and mechanisms may become the largest interconnected economic cooperation in the world.

In this historical period, in which emerging economies and developing countries are more and more showing their will for a multi-polar world, the United States shows its will to maintain its economic and military domination. China and the BRICS put in place new partnerships, new cooperation mechanisms and new financial structures to keep a certain independence and liberty in face of US-led imperialism, and shows its intends to be ready in case of an international political or economic crisis. This is a way to establish friendly and strong ties with other emerging or developing countries, to pursue common prosperity through peace and development, and to prepare a defensive position in case of imperialist wars.

China-CELAC: Cooperation between China and Developing Countries of Latin-America and Caribbean

China-CELAC (China-LAC) Forums to Strengthen South-South Cooperation

The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), which includes 33 States from South America and the Caribbean, was created in 2010. The CELAC excludes the participation of the United States, Canada or islands of the region that are dependencies of France, England, Netherlands and Danemark. CELAC was created as an alternative to the Organisation of American States (OAS), which is influenced by the United States. The CELAC works on objectives such as eradication of hunger and poverty, on food security, sustainable development, innovation in science and technology, development of infrastructures, development of the productivity of industry, development of education, and dialogue between cultures.

The first China-CELAC Forum was held in Beijing in January 2015. It has launched a overall cooperation between China and the CELAC countries in order to better connect China to the Caribbean and to Latin America. During the first China-CELAC forum, the two parts exchanged views on priority issues such as innovation, education, sustainable development, development of science and technology. As developing countries, China and the members of the CELAC have some similarities in their development tasks and challenges. Several other China-CELAC (called today China-LAC) forums on specific themes such as agriculture or business were organized since 2015.

The China-LAC forums provides an important platform for South-South comprehensive cooperation in various fields based on equality, common development and mutual benefit. The goal is to build a strong relationship between China and the CELAC countries. Both have complementary advantages in many aspects and cooperate to bring economic growth and prosperity to their people and struggle together against poverty and for more social justice. China and the CELAC countries put peace and development at the core of their cooperation.

The China-LAC forums are part of China’s plan to reinforce its cooperation with developing countries, develop a better economic integration and promote development, common prosperity and peace. It is a slap to the face of the US, which considers Latin America and a part of the Caribbean to be its backyard. These recent years, many countries of Latin America that were taking a more progressive and sometimes socialist path were destabilized from inside by national dominant classes and from outside by regional dominant classes and by imperialist forces. These hostile forces are opposed to fundamental changes in Latin America that would negatively impact their interests. Consequently, military or institutional Coups d’Etat (successful or unsuccessful) were organized in various Latin American countries such as Venezuela, Bolivia, Honduras, Equator, Paraguay, among others.

The stronger will be the links between the cooperation mechanism such as the CELAC, the BRICS, the “One Belt One Road” initiative, the SCO, the BIMSTEC, and financial mechanism such as the NBD, AIIB, CRA, the Silk Road Fund among others, the more they will become, as a whole, a threat to the imperialist powers. It will contribute to reduce the dependence of the developing countries and emerging economies on the Western political, economic and institutional dominance, and will create the basis of a multi-polar world.

A New Type of International relations with Chinese Characteristics: Theory and Practice

China’s longtime Commitment to Peaceful Development: Cause and Effect

To understand the commitment of China to peaceful development one must briefly understand its historical past, its culture and its political system.

The 19th and 20th Century, often called the “Century of Humiliation” (1839-1949) by the Chinese people, is a period during which China suffered from Western and Japanese colonialism and imperialism. The two Opium Wars (1839-1842 and 1856-1860) are symbolic examples of foreign invasion and bullying of China. The suffering of the Chinese people because of feudalism, imperialism, colonialism, war and poverty remain in their collective memory. That is why the Chinese cherish peace and refuse to impose on others what was imposed on them by force. The Chinese people in general pursue stability and harmony inside and outside China. Furthermore, China has no State religion. It is mainly influenced by many schools of philosophical thought such as Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism and Marxism. None of them encourage expansionism or war. In addition, China is a socialist country ruled by a communist party, the Communist Party of China (CPC). The CPC advocates peace and socialism. World peace is a commitment written into both the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China and into the Constitution of the Communist Party of China. “China is also the only nuclear-armed state that has committed itself to non-first-use of nuclear weapons” [8]. China’s commitment to peaceful development is a decision made by the CPC based on China’s historical, cultural and political experience. It is also related to China’s capacity to draw lessons from experience elsewhere in the world.

China believes that a peaceful international environment can help to promote and to realize common prosperity for all the countries of the world. China pursues peaceful development by linking its own national economic development to the World’s economic development, in particular with the developing countries and emerging economies. China tries to improve its overall national strength without oppressing other populations or countries and tries to balance as much as possible its own interest with international interests. To pursue mutually beneficial development, China needs to promote a peaceful international environment that can ensure a stable development for its people and for the people all over the world. Peace contributes to development, and development contributes to peace. They are inter-connected. China says that it will never seek hegemony or commit any act of expansion, which is an important statement in favor of world peace. As said by Xi Jinping, “China will never seek development at the expense of any other country’s interest, nor will it shift its problems onto others (...) [but will] pursue peaceful and common development, uphold the multilateral trading system and participate in global economic governance” [9]. Indeed, China believes that to face global issues and common challenges, countries must cooperate toward shared goals and seek peaceful development on the basis of peaceful coexistence. China wants to rejuvenate itself through mutual beneficial international cooperation, but not by bullying others. In contrast, the United States and the European powers’ rise and expansionist competition were always accompanied by colonialism, wars, and economic and political pressures on weaker countries.

Myths on China Seeking Hegemony and Facts on China’s Win-Win Cooperation

Contrary to what is said in and by mainstream Western media, China is not seeking hegemony. Yet it is not the case of the United States. Indeed, the US Secretary of Defense Ash Carter said that “US policy is to confront those ‘who see America’s dominance and want to take that away from us’ [10]. Moreover, in 2011, President Obama announced a “Pivot to Asia”, meaning that by 2020 more or less 2/3 of the US naval power would be transferred to the Asia-Pacific region. China is already surrounded by some 400 US bases [11], including 50 000 US troops stationed in Japan (including 32 US military installations on the 1200 km2 island of Okinawa which faces China [12]) and around 30 000 US troops stationed in South Korea [13]. To protect itself and avoid a possible US blockade, China builds airstrips on disputed islets in the South China Sea. The real threat comes in reality from the US which refuses to let go its worldwide military, political and economic dominance, including in the Asia-Pacific region as was clearly expressed in a 1992 US Department of Defense (Pentagon) draft of the Defense Planning Guidance for the Fiscal Years 1994-1999: “Asia is home to the world’s greatest concentration of traditional Communist states, with fundamental values, governance, and policies decidedly at variance with our own and those of our friends and allies. To buttress the vital political and economic relationships we have along the Pacific rim, we must maintain our status as a military power of the first magnitude in the area. This will enable the U.S. to continue to contribute to regional security and stability by acting as a balancing force and prevent emergence of a vacuum or a regional hegemon” [14]. This is one of the reasons why, in October 2016, Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte said, during his visit in China, that he wanted to review the military agreement with the US which would put an end to the longtime military alliance between the Philippines and the United States [15]. These recent years, the US and Japan used the South China Sea territorial disputes as a pretext to exacerbate the tensions between China and the neighboring countries. To avoid conflicts as much as possible, China and the Philippines make important efforts to resolve peacefully the South China Sea crisis and enhance the bilateral cooperation between the two countries.

Yet, some US politicians and scholars, such as Robert Kagan, believe, or pretend to believe, that US hegemony makes the US safer and richer, and that it brings peace and prosperity to the world [16]. The facts show the contrary. Ask the people from Afghanistan, Irak, Libya or Syria what they think about how the US brings peace and prosperity to the world, and many of them could answer the complete opposite.

The Chinese military threat is a myth. China’s military expenditures in 2015 represented 2% of its GDP while the US military expenditures in 2015 represented 3,3% of its GDP [17]. Furthermore, these past 10 years, China’s highest military expenditures represented 2,1% of its GDP (2009) while the United States highest military expenditures represented 4,7% of its GDP (2010) [18]. In reality, China’s military forces development is not to make war, but to prepare for war if it comes. It is also a dissuasive way of preventing war. This is something that was lacking, for instance, during the first Opium War when China was not able to oppose the introduction of opium by England and to prevent the British invasion of China. China learned from its experiences and today China knows that “to prepare for war is to prevent war”. By promoting a peaceful development and a multi-polar world, China participates actively to the anti-hegemony and anti-imperialist struggle.

In fact, win-win type of cooperation have been practiced by China for a long time. Since its establishment in 1949, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) helped many African and Asian countries in their national liberation struggle against colonialism and imperialism. At the Bandung Conference in 1955, China already established the principles of non-interference in internal affairs, mutually-beneficial cooperation, pacific cooperation and solidarity. China supported the developing countries in the United Nations and also helped many countries to develop, even though China itself was still facing many economic difficulties. China constructed many infrastructures that were often needed by the developing countries to develop economically. China also sent many doctors (’barefoot doctors’) who worked in African villages.

More recently, China announced “six hundred’s” global initiative, including the establishment of a large anti-poverty programs for the developing world targeting issues broadly impacting the developing countries such as climate change, modernization of agriculture, education, health, among other fields [19]. China’s overseas development assistance (ODA) to developing countries is constantly increasing. From 2010 to 2012, China granted over 14 billion US dollars aid (36.2% of grants, 55.7% of concessional loans and 8.1% of interest-free loans) to 121 countries. The aid was allocated to sectors such as economic infrastructure (44.8%), social and public infrastructure (27.6%) and goods and materials (15%) to 51 countries of Africa, 39 countries of Asia-Pacific, 19 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean and 12 countries of Europe [20]. In addition, China is today one of the world’s largest source of foreign direct investment (FDI) with 116 billion US dollars in 2014 (259 billion US dollars adding Hong Kong’s 143 billion US dollars [21]). The upward trend in Chinese FDI outflows, including toward developing countries and emerging economies, should continue the next few years, especially in sectors related to infrastructure, as will be observable as the “One Belt One Road” initiative is gradually implemented.

The history of the PRC shows that since its establishment, China always cultivated South-South solidarity relations based on a win-win type of cooperation and promoted peace and development. The Chinese Communist Party, under the leadership of Chinese President Xi Jinping, continued China’s anti-imperialist and anti-hegemony tradition. As he stressed,“We should jointly push the international order toward a fairer and more rational direction, maintain the rights of people’s self-choice for choosing social system and development path, strengthen global governance and attract more attention to the issue of development from the international community” [22]. This quote is one of the multiple examples of statements made by the CPC these recent years, especially since the 18th CPC National Congress held in 2012. The 18th CPC Congress stressed the themes of peace, development, cooperation and win-win cooperation for its diplomatic relations. China clearly pushes forward a new type of international relations based on a win-win type of cooperation and actively put it in place when cooperating with other countries. This new type of cooperation gives new opportunities of development to lots of countries that were held, for many years, under the political and economic control of their colonial masters and by global imperialism.

China pursues two paths: the path of development for itself and the path of common development of the world. The interconnection between the two is fundamental to the issue of peace and development. Peace and development are themselves interconnected. You can’t have peace without development, nor development without peace. To pursue peace and development, China needs to link together its goal of achieving a moderately prosperous society by 2020 in China with achieving a moderately prosperous society in the world. Only development and common share of the fruits of that development can bring peace and stability to China and to the world. The Chinese dream can become a world dream. The path of China and of the world are interconnected and China, now that it is the second economic power of the world, refuses to copy the “win-lose” Western model of international relation.

The “One Belt One Road” (OBOR) initiative proposed by Chinese President Xi Jinping in 2013 is an interesting example of a new type of cooperation with Chinese Characteristics. The OBOR ambitious initiative will benefit China, but will also benefit all the countries (some 60 countries of Asia, Europe and Africa) involved under principle of “joint contribution and shared benefit”. This means inclusiveness, peaceful cooperation, mutual learning, mutual trust, respect of sovereignty and common prosperity. It should link the rest of the world to China’s economic growth and provide new opportunities of development and benefits to all the countries participating in the project. For instance, building infrastructure will simultaneously meet a strong demand and improve people lives in developing countries (facilitating the transportation of people and goods) and will help partly to solve China’s overproduction problem. It will contribute at the same time to the economic development of both sides. Yet, the OBOR initiative will put in place a new partnership based on win-win cooperation and dialogue between different countries that have different cultures, traditions, languages and economic systems. It will be full of opportunities, but also full of challenges for the participating countries that are contributing to the establishment of the China-led new type of international relations.

Even if China is the second world economy, it upholds the principle of mutual respects and equality with other countries, regardless of their level of development, the size of their territory, the number of their population, the strength of their economy or other factors. For China, every country should be able to participate equally and be considered equally. China considers the national sovereignty, political and economic independence and territorial integrity as inviolable. Depending on its national conditions (history, culture, etc.), every country should have the choice of socio-economic and political system. No country should intervene in other countries internal affairs. China pursue mutual benefit and common development. It is the only way to promote peace and stability in the world. If the gap is to big between poor and rich countries and poor and rich within a country, this can only create instability. This is why China promotes a more inclusive and sustainable type of economic development. Dialogue and mutual trust are also promoted by China as ways to promote peace and mutual development by helping to avoid some conflicts, and to better work together on specific issues such as terrorism which is an international threat.

Conclusion

These recent years, the CPC under the leadership of Chinese President Xi Jinping strongly pushed forward the importance of building a new type of international relations based on peaceful development and win-win cooperation.

China considers that countries in this era of globalization are closely interconnected and their economies are closely integrated. A war or economic crisis that happens in a country far away can have a direct impact on another country, on a region or in the whole world. This is why the hegemonic approach is very dangerous for world peace. Bigger countries bullying smaller countries, powerful countries oppressing weaker countries, is a path that China refuses to follow. On the contrary, China wants to build a new type of international relations (“win-win cooperation with Chinese characteristics”) based on the principles of sharing interests, avoiding conflicts and solving disputes and/or reaching agreement through dialogue.

In this historical period in which emerging economies and developing countries are more and more showing their will for a multi-polar world, the United States show its will to maintain its economic and military domination. China and the BRICS, put in place new partnerships, new cooperation mechanisms and new financial structures to keep a certain independence and liberty in face of US-led imperialism, and to be ready in case of an international political or economic crisis. They establish friendly and strong ties with other emerging or developing countries, pursue common prosperity trough peace and development, and prepare a possible a defensive position in case of imperialist war. China promotes peace, but is ready for war in case it is attacked.

To understand the new type of international relations put forward by China, one must consider China in its historical, cultural socio-economic and political conditions, and must link it into today’s international context. This explains why China refuses to impose its ideology, currency, language, military forces or to interfere in foreign countries internal affairs, such as it is usually done in the Western traditional international relations. Instead, it establishes bilateral or multilateral win-win economic relations with other countries. For China, mutual development is a fundamental key to world peace. Realizing win-win cooperation in international relations means that each country may pursue common interests and share benefits instead of pursuing its own interests at the expense of others in a win-lose cooperation. Each country should prioritize dialogue and cooperation and should avoid antagonism and confrontation. It is the only way to create a peaceful world and a sustainable world for all humankind.

China, as it actively participates to the creation of banks independent from the US such as the NDB or AIIB, establishes new cooperation with other countries or other cooperation mechanisms such as the BRICS, the China-CELAC forums, the OBOR initiative, the SCO, the FOCAC (Forum on China-Africa Cooperation), etc., will contribute to reduce the dependence of the developing countries and emerging economies from the Western political, economic and institutional dominance, and set up the basis of a multi-polar world. The possibility for all those structures, mechanisms and groups of countries to be inter-connected based on a new-type of international relations (more inclusive, equal, peaceful, respectful, etc.) is a real threat to US hegemony, unipolar world governance and imperialism. Moreover, China keeps the long-term objective to bring prosperity to all the people and to achieve socialism and communism.

The active role of China in and with different structures, mechanisms, institutions (BRICS, CELAC, etc.) “by the emerging economies and developing countries, of the emerging economies and developing countries and for the emerging economies and developing countries” give them a louder voice in the international affairs (“global governance”) and should write a new page in the history of international relations and global governance in the 21st century.

[1Kong Defang, Huang Jin, “BRICS, S.American countries ‘rising power’ in int’l structure: Chinese president”, People’s Daily Online, 17 July 2014. Available online at http://en.people.cn/n/2014/0717/c90883-8757006.html

[2Jiang Jie, “Backgrounder: BRICS and their past summits”, People’s Daily Online, 15 October 2015. Available online at: http://en.people.cn/n3/2016/1015/c90000-9127646.html

[3Wang Qingyun, An Baijie, “Xi: Step up investment in emerging economies”, China Daily, 17 October 2016. Available online at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/xiattendsbricssummit/2016-10/17/content_27077495.htm

[4John Ross, “Why Are China and India Growing So Fast? State Investment”, Huffington Post, 29 August 2016. Available online at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john_ross-/china-india-growth_b_11655472.html?

[5Yao Dawei, “China proposal points direction for enhancing BRICS cooperation”, Qiushi, 18 October 2016. Available online at: http://english.qstheory.cn/2016-10/18/c_1119737223.htm

[6New Development Bank BRICS (official website). Available online at: http://www.ndbbrics.org

[7“President Xi attends BRICS-BIMSTEC leaders’ dialogue”, China.org.cn (China’s national online news service), 17 October 2016. Available online at: http://www.china.org.cn/world/Off_the_Wire/2016-10/17/content_39501181.htm

[8Huang Huaguang and Luan Jianzhang, The Roadmap of the 18th CPC National Congress and The Chinese Dream, Foreign Languages Press, 2013, p.289.

[9Xi Jinping, “Strengthen the Foundation for Pursuing Peaceful Development”, The Governance of China, 2014 p.273.

[10T.J. Coles and John Pilger, “John Pilger on Obama, Propaganda, and ‘The Coming War on China’”, Telesur, 29 October 2016. Available online at: http://www.telesurtv.net/english/opinion/John-Pilger-on-Obama-Propaganda-and-The-Coming-War-on-China-20161029-0001.html

[11John Pilger, “Confronting China”, Information Clearing House, 28 October 2016. Available online at: http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article45754.htm

[12T.J. Coles and John Pilger, “John Pilger on Obama, Propaganda, and ‘The Coming War on China’”, Telesur, 29 October 2016. Available online at: http://www.telesurtv.net/english/opinion/John-Pilger-on-Obama-Propaganda-and-The-Coming-War-on-China-20161029-0001.html

[13John Glaser, “The US and China can avoid a collision course – if the US gives up its empire”, The Guardian, 28 May 2015. Available online at: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/may/28/conflict-us-china-not-inevitable-empire

[14“Excerpts From Pentagon’s Plan: ’Prevent the Re-Emergence of a New Rival’”, The New York Times, 8 March 1992. Available online at: http://www.nytimes.com/1992/03/08/world/excerpts-from-pentagon-s-plan-prevent-the-re-emergence-of-a-new-rival.html?pagewanted=all ; See also: http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/nukevault/ebb245/doc03_extract_nytedit.pdf

[15“China stresses peace over S. China Sea”, China.org.cn (China’s national online news service), 28 October 2016. Available online at: http://www.china.org.cn/world/2016-10/28/content_39585465.htm

[16John Glaser, “The US and China can avoid a collision course – if the US gives up its empire”, The Guardian, 28 May 2015. Available online at: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/may/28/conflict-us-china-not-inevitable-empire

[17The World Bank, “Military Expenditure” (% of GDP). Available online at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/MS.MIL.XPND.GD.ZS

[18The World Bank, “Military Expenditure” (% of GDP) [Comparison between China and the US military expanditure from 2005 to 2015]. Available online at: http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=2&series=MS.MIL.XPND.GD.ZS&country=USA,CHN

[19Alvin Cheng-Hin Lim, “A New Type Of International Relations: Xi Jinping’s 2015 State Visits To UK, Vietnam And Singapore – Analysis”, Eurasia Review, 9 November 2015. Available online at: http://www.eurasiareview.com/09112015-a-new-type-of-international-relations-xi-jinpings-2015-state-visits-to-uk-vietnam-and-singapore-analysis/

[20Lean Alfred Santos, “Building the whole picture of China’s growing ODA”, Devex, 18 July 2014. Available online at: http://www.devex.com/news/building-the-whole-picture-of-china-s-growing-oda-83916

[21“World Investment Report 2015: Reforming International Investment Governance”, UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development), p.8. Available online at: http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/wir2015_en.pdf

[22Kong Defang, Huang Jin, “BRICS, S.American countries ‘rising power’ in int’l structure: Chinese president”, People’s Daily Online, 17 July 2014. Available online at: http://en.people.cn/n/2014/0717/c90883-8757006.html


Follow site activity RSS 2.0 | Site Map | Translators’ zone | SPIP